Importance of Biodiversity

updated May 2017

Biodiversity is nature’s strategic defence. If it were not so well camouflaged, we might be more careful to preserve it. This hidden hand of variety patrols each layer of the hierarchy of life in the biosphere – genes, species and ecosystems.

Take the simple example of a herd of grazing cattle. Their field is an example of an ecosystem, comprising the animals, plants, insects and all living things for which the field offers a suitable habitat. The range of these species will be one indication of biodiversity in that field.

Species diversity sustains the equilibrium of an ecosystem. The loss of one component, especially an important “keystone” species  such as a pollinator, can trigger the breakdown of the whole.

Genetic diversity within the breed of cattle will be apparent from slight differences in physical appearance and temperament of each individual, as well as countless invisible traits. This form of diversity is important because it improves the likelihood that a plant or animal species will be able to adapt to disease, pests or a variation in habitat.

Ecosystems can be smaller or larger than a field. The largest and most familiar – such as lakes, wetlands and mangrove forests – are described as biomes. The incidence of biodiversity varies greatly between biomes, being most intense in tropical forests and in coral reefs. One hectare of Amazon rainforest can contain more plant species than the whole of Europe.

Stability of ecosystems is of particular importance to the top species, homo sapiens, whose rising numbers lack resilience to any disruption in supplies of life’s essentials. Robust performance of diverse ecosystems is most pressing for the world’s poorest people, 70% of whom live off the land or the sea. There are 475 million smallholder farms on plots of less than two hectares, 60 million forest peoples living within tropical forests and 150 million poor people dependent on livelihoods linked with fisheries.

The bounty of nature is often subdivided into four categories – the provisioning of basic needs such as food and water, the regulation of critical earth systems such as the carbon cycle, the support of formations such as soil and the spiritual inspiration of the natural world. We carry inherent genetic affinity with the land and sea from which we evolved.

However, modern times have distanced the average household from its life-support systems, physically, economically and emotionally. The innate value of biodiversity has slipped off the human radar, with devastating consequences.


The Value of Biodiversity – we neglect the economic and cultural importance of biodiversity at our peril, from Crisis of Life project.

What is biodiversity and why is it important? – Dr Steve Morton of CSIRO in Australia talks about the different values that humans obtain from biodiversity and the role we will need to play in shaping its future

more Biodiversity briefings
The Anthropocene
Biodiversity Loss and Planetary Boundaries
Causes of Biodiversity Loss
Climate Change and Biodiversity
Conservation of Biodiversity
Solutions to Biodiversity Loss
Sustainable Development Goals for Biodiversity
Biodiversity Finance and Economics
Biodiversity Access and Benefit-Sharing
Source Material and Useful Links

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